The current number system that is common throughout the world is called HinduArabic. This system was developed in Indian and introduced to the Arabic world in the 10th century. It is a decimal (base 10) with place value and a zero.
Each row is the same number written in different systems. See if you can identify the missing numbers in the chart below. A few hints are located on the next page.
HinduArabic  Egyptian  Roman  Babylonian  Mayan  Base5 

3  III  5_{five}  
14  XIV  24_{five}  
27 

XXVII  102_{five}  
49 

XLIX  144_{five}  
123 

CXXIII  443_{five}  
540 

DXL  (tricky!) 
4130_{five}  
1234 

MCCXXXIV  14414_{five}  
99 

XCIX  344_{five}  
256 

CCLVI  2011_{five} 
The Epyptian hieroglyphic system dates back as early as 3000 BC. Can you label the symbols?
1  10  100  1,000  10,000  100,000  1,000,000 
The notation of Roman numerals has varied through the centuries. In fact, the subtractive notation (IIII vs. IV) is fairly recent. Can you label the symbols? What effect does the bar over top have?
I  V  X  L  C  D  M  V  X 
1  5  10  50  100  500  1,000  5,000  10,000 
Babylonians were wellknown for astronomy and developed a sexagesimal number system. Base60 still survives to this day in degrees (360° in a circle), minutes, and seconds. The Babylonian number system is credited as the first to use a place value system. Can you label the symbols?
<  
1  10 
The Mayans lived in Central America circa 1500 BC to 1500 AD. Without knowledge of any European or Asian number systems, they developed a vertical system of dots and bars. The Mayan system had a symbol for zero and place value. Can you label the symbols?
0  1  5 
Hint 1: Base 20 system
Hint 2: Show where the place value breaks are. "27", "49", "123" have two. "540" has three.
If really stuck, try https://www.wolframalpha.com/examples/HistoricalNumerals.html